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細粒(PM2.5和PM10)控制技術和法規

2021-03-25 11:31

PM10 AND PM2.5 - THE EFFECTS, REGULATIONS AND CONTROLLING THIS FINE PARTICULATE

依照NAAQS《美國大氣質量標準》的規定:不大于10微米和2.5微米的懸浮微粒定義為對大氣質量有顯著影響的污染物。

All particulate matter, or Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), has been subject to controls by municipalities and states even prior to the Clean Air Acts of 1970 and 1990, and their predecessor acts dating as early as 1955.  However, beginning in 1987, and following in 1997, 2006 and 2012, the USEPA has established standards for these fine subsets of particulate, PM10 and PM2.5.  The states set Particulate Matter (PM) source emission limits in order to achieve the concentrations mandated by these standards.

所有的懸浮微粒,或者說總懸浮顆粒物排放限制已由于1970年通過并于1990年修正的《清潔空氣法案》的規定強制要求州和市政府執行,并且他們的前任早于1955年初就已經著手開始了。盡管如此,在1987年初,接下來在1997年、20062012年,美國環境保護署就已經建立了關于這些微細顆粒物處置的標準。

While large particulate can be expelled by normal inhalation and coughing/sneezing, PM10 has been found to be able to embed in lung tissue and even enter the blood stream, where the particles’ chemical constituents will affect one’s health.  The smaller PM2.5 particulate also has these health effects but as its smaller diameter approaches the wavelengths of visible light, it also produces the visible haze one can view from cities to the national parks. This fine particulate has been shown to increase heart attacks, aggravate asthma, reduce lung function and contribute to premature death.

大的顆粒物能夠由正常的呼吸功能排出(呼吸、咳嗽以及打噴嚏),但是PM10細粒已經被發現能夠嵌入肺部組織,甚至進入血液系統。同時顆粒物的化學組分將必然影響人的健康!而PM2.5細粒因為其更細?。ń咏诳梢姽獾牟ㄩL)故而對人類健康更具威脅:它會形成肉眼可見的霾(在城市普遍可見),增加心臟病的發病率、使哮喘惡化、降低肺功能和提高早死亡率。

PM10 and PM2.5 are produced in a multiplicity of ways.  Natural phenomena, such as waves and wind, wildfires to evaporation, are among those that generate and disperse fine aerosols and solid particles.  Human activity, such as transport, cultivation, animal husbandry, excavation, construction, etc., also add to the fine particulate in the atmosphere.  Combustion, from residential heating to coal-fired electric utilities to fires in structures, increase this burden. 

PM10PM2.5細粒系經由多種方式產生的——自然現象,像波涌和風、野火的散播,其生發和擴散為極細的氣溶膠和顆粒物;人類的活動,像交通運輸、農耕、畜牧業、采掘、建筑等等,也增加了大氣中的粉塵含量;焚燒,從居所采暖到大型燃煤發電設施,也加大了大氣中的塵載。

Finally, industrial processes, for producing goods and their intermediates, complete the sources of PM10 and PM2.5.  Unlike many of the wide area contributors, these sources can be well controlled.  Nederman provides the experience, design knowledge and physical equipment to capture, contain and filter the fine particulate, so that it doesn’t enter the atmosphere.

最后,工業生產——為得到貨物及其中間物質,所產生的顆粒物完全處于PM10PM2.5的范圍之內。但這不像上述的自然現象和人類的活動,這是可以完好地被控制的??òh境依據豐富的業界經驗積累和設計能力以及高質量的處理設備來捕捉、過濾這些細粒,以避免其進入大氣環境。